Fan/remix video (a remix)

Julie Levin Russo

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States

Francesca Coppa

Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States

[0.1] Abstract—Editorial for Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 9 (September 15, 2012).

[0.2] Keywords—Anime music video; Appropriation; Fan production; Fan trailers; Mashup; Political remix video; Vidding

Russo, Julie Levin, and Francesca Coppa. 2012. "Fan/Remix Video (A Remix)." In "Fan/Remix Video," edited by Francesca Coppa and Julie Levin Russo, special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, no. 9. https://doi.org/10.3983/twc.2012.0431.

[1.1] Remix, even moving image remix, is hardly a new phenomenon. Indeed, the buzzword has gathered such momentum in cultural discourse that it begins to seem retrospectively that everything is a remix (http://everythingisaremix.info). Copying and overpainting in the Renaissance (http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2105928,00.html); the ascendance of pop art; Bach's "Goldberg Variations"; the analog techniques of early hip-hop turntablists (http://thomson.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/infographic/interactive-music-map/index.html); the repertoire of folklore; surrealist films of the 1930s—as these varied examples indicate, remix as a trope converges with our idea of creative production itself. At least, this is a common refrain among advocates of copyright reform, who have argued that culture always builds on the past (figure 1).

Figure 1. Screen shot from "RIP: A Remix Manifesto," by Brett Gaylor (2009) (http://ripremix.com/). [View larger image.]

Video 1. "Rose Hobart" by Joseph Cornell (1936) (http://www.sensesofcinema.com/2001/cteq/hobart/).

[1.2] Remix thus perhaps embodies our more pervasive sense of a postmodern repudiation of artistic principles like originality, authenticity, or aura, to the degree that it can characterize our audiovisual culture as a whole. Nonetheless, as a practice that extends beyond music subcultures, the term is most closely associated with the historical specificities of our contemporary moment at the level of technology, powerful personal computers, consumer digital media devices, and Web 2.0. Remix video in particular has only recently blossomed into a widespread popular phenomenon. Vidding, political remix, DIY media, trailer mashups, tribute videos, memes, machinima, fan films—we are in the midst of an explosion in vernacular creativity that appropriates, celebrates, critiques, and transforms commercial entertainment. Technological innovations and Internet platforms support a developing ecology of video remix forms with unprecedented reach, richness, and cultural influence. At the same time, the value and legitimacy of this popular production is hotly contested on the basis of artistic merit, traditional literacies, and intellectual property.

[1.3] In this special issue, we zoom in on questions foregrounded by the proliferation and mainstreaming of remix video over the past decade. Not coincidentally, this summer will mark the 10th anniversary of VividCon (http://vividcon.com), a convention founded at a time when the fan vidding community was weathering the transition to digital editing and an associated influx of new devotees. It would have been difficult then to anticipate the scale of this transformation, both in the prevalence of fan music videos (which are now a YouTube staple) and in their new interchanges with a vast ecology of remix practice. As mashup video genres increasingly coexist, cross-pollinate, and collide online, emerging scholarly canons and debates on these distinct traditions can become similarly intersectional and mobile. We aim to bring diverse critical engagements to this conjuncture by fostering connections between scholars and fans across disciplines and subcultures.

2. Remix culture

[2.1] It's hard to believe we're only 7 years out from YouTube's early days in the spring of 2005 (http://infographiclabs.com/infographic/history-of-online-video/). While this Web startup was far from the first or last venture in Internet video, its pioneering features (including encoding, streaming, and embedding) and critical mass of users (facilitated by social components) rapidly positioned it as the destination for video online. With YouTube, the capacity of digital technologies to popularize all links in the video chain—production, distribution, appropriation—came to fruition. It's already hard to imagine our culture without ubiquitous access to audiovisual content from across the amateur-professional spectrum and the ensuing predilection to share, modify, and spread it. In less than a decade, video has become a media vernacular in unprecedented ways. As an example, consider both the content and the form of video responses to Jean Burgess's 2008 essay "'All Your Chocolate Rain Are Belong to Us'? Viral Video, YouTube and the Dynamics of Participatory Culture" by students in the course Studies in Digital Culture at De Motfort University (http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL690C70E82197ECC2).

Video 2. "Video Summary of Jean Burgess' Essay…" by Jess Wager (2011).

[2.2] It's important to remember that remix and participatory media are not synonymous with the digital. Appropriation has been a hallmark of 20th-century art practice, customarily dated back to Duchamp's readymades (http://kiki-miserychic.livejournal.com/192417.html). And a succession of innovations in more affordable and mobile recording technologies from 16mm film (1930s) to the Portapak video camera (1970s) have supported visions of independent grassroots media production. Digital media, however, represents a qualitative change in the possibilities and implications of popular video making. According to Lev Manovich's axiomatic textbook The Language of New Media, the two fundamental principles of computerization are numerical representation and modularity (2002, 27–31). It follows that audiovisual content is today subject to quantification and algorithmic manipulation based on the decomposition and recomposition of its discrete units. What we now understand as media on any screen is essentially premixed by the processes of digitization into modular elements (the smallest of which are 0s and 1s), underpinning the explosion of what we have come to think of as remix culture.

Figure 2. "Outline of Lev Manovich's The Language of New Media," created by Carlton (2008).

[2.3] In this present-day context, Eduardo Navas (2010) defines remix culture as "a global activity consisting of the creative and efficient exchange of information made possible by digital technologies…[and] supported by the practice of cut/copy and paste." In this more precise definition, remix, which originated as a term in hip-hop and disco subcultures, is based on sampling: taking excerpts of one or more existing works and recombining them into a new work. Before computerization, various forms of remix relied on specific technical practices dependent on distinct media. The digitization of media allows remix to function as a generalized principle of cultural production. Although software interfaces may vary, "cut/copy and paste"—a corollary of "numerical representation and modularity"—is now an intuitive operation to anyone who has used Microsoft Word or cropped a profile pic. For the purposes of this special issue, we consider remix video to include not only reedits of appropriated footage but other styles with a clear transformative logic. This might encompass Internet memes, machinima videos that use recorded game play, and live-action parodies, remakes, or fan films. Navas emphasizes that "a rearrangement of something already recognizable" is fundamental to remix as a "meta-level" genre. We believe this point supports adopting a conceptual rather than purely technical definition.

Video 3. "Remix Culture: The Early Years," from the Center for Social Media (2008).

[2.4] Thus, we can understand remix culture as an intersection of technological developments and creative tendencies that catalyzed a tipping point in our mediascape. The threshold of storage, processing capacity, and bandwidth we crossed in the 2000s, exemplified by the YouTube era of virtually infinite video, has catapulted remix into mainstream consciousness. The ensuing aesthetic, ideological, and legal questions have been taken up in venues from Businessweek (http://www.businessweek.com/technology/the-war-between-copyright-and-remix-culture-12122011.html) to The Colbert Report (http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/216595/january-21-2009/stephen-s-remix-challenge). The appearance of university courses on remix tied to faculty research interests in digital and participatory culture—including our own offerings: Copy This Class at Stanford University (spring 2011) (http://edu.j-l-r.org/pg/groups/29998/remix-copy-this-class/) and Writing About Remix at Muhlenberg College (fall 2011 and 2012) (http://writingaboutremix.mirocommunity.org/)—is another testament to the currency of this configuration (table 1).

Table 1. Overview of selected remix courses

Course Description
Remix Culture (fall 2009), Jill Walker Rettberg, University of Bergen (http://jilltxt.net/?p=2418) "This semester the focus is on remix culture: the ways in which artists, writers and creators of all kinds of cultural artifacts today borrow, appropriate and remix content created by other people. We'll be interpreting works where this happens, we'll read about cultural and legal implications of remixing, study historical examples of earlier cultural appropriation (we are far from the first remixers) and think about the theoretical and practical implications of a culture where the original genius is no longer the dominant cultural myth."
Open Source Culture (every year), Mark Tribe, Brown University (https://wiki.brown.edu/confluence/display/mcm1700n) "Where do we draw the line between sampling and stealing? What does it mean to call a urinal a work of art? This course explores the tension between artistic appropriation and intellectual property law, and considers recent efforts to use open source software as a model for cultural production. We will trace a history of open source culture from Cubist collage and the Readymades of Marcel Duchamp through Pop art and found footage film to Hip Hop and movie trailer mashups."
Digital Media and Participatory Culture (fall 2010), Melanie E. S. Kohnen, Georgia Tech (http://lcc.gatech.edu/~mkohnen3/index_tp_syllabus_
"In the second half of the semester, we will focus on how we use digital media to participate in culture. Our focus here will be on remixing, mash-ups, digital video production, and other forms of transforming existing media texts. We will also consider how copyright regulations impact remix cultures."
Writing, Research, and Technology (2009–2010), Bill Wolff, Rowan University (http://netvibes.com/wolffcw2010online) "Writing, in our highly mediated culture, is remixing. Complementing this mode of writing are low-tech, low-cost, user-friendly technologies, such as the Flip Video Camera and YouTube. This installation of student videos will challenge viewers to rethink traditional concepts so often fixed in meaning: text, research, writing, and composition, among others."
Remix Culture (winter 2012), Louisa Stein, Middlebury College (http://lstein.wordpress.com/2012/01/06/remix-culture-a-winter-term-experience/) "With the spread of digital technologies, remix has come to the forefront as a major form of artistic work and of cultural and political commentary. We will examine how digital technologies shape transformative creativity. Drawing on the work of theorists such as DJ Spooky and Lawrence Lessig, we will consider the creative and legal ramifications of remix logics" [description from course catalog].

[2.5] We hope that this special issue, alongside other recent journal publications and several new or forthcoming books on remix culture (Appendix D), will contribute to a growing scholarly discourse on our contemporary conjuncture of digital media, online communities, and grassroots creativity.

[2.6] Beyond spurring academic and journalistic interest, however, the technocultural innovations that have escalated remix have intensified and transformed creative communities and practices themselves. As an all-encompassing video portal, YouTube has brought subcultures into contact and encouraged aesthetic, conceptual, and personal connections between creative communities that were relatively isolated and distinct in the era before social media. The 24/7 DIY Video Summit (http://video24-7.org) in 2008 was an event exemplary of these new formations and a watershed in forging alliances among academics, artists, activists, legal advocates, technologists, and enthusiasts across the online video spectrum. In particular, 24/7 DIY placed fan vids, anime music videos, and machinima as pop cultural remix styles in dialogue with political and artistic remixes and independent video. This thoughtful curation initiated fresh conversations about popular remix as a legitimate artistic practice and about the evolving relationships between traditions and genres in the memetic context of the Internet.

[2.7] Such an inclusive lens is important for supporting coalitions and affinities given the technical and legal challenges facing remix video today. While we are witnessing a sea change in typical attitudes and activities around appropriation and intellectual property, both old and new media industries are actively resisting these changes to ideas and systems of ownership. Hosting streaming video online still requires significant resources and expense, which has been an obstacle to the development of a community-supported, nonprofit platform. As a result, creators must choose among several corporate portals to distribute their projects. (The two exceptions we're aware of, The Internet Archive [http://archive.org] and Critical Commons [http://criticalcommons.org], are appreciated but less user-friendly options.) Under pressure from Hollywood, most Web video companies disavow all copyrighted material, with little recourse for transformative works. Although YouTube has been the milieu for much of the vibrant creativity of video remix, it also has the most highly developed infrastructure for preemptively and indiscriminately blocking content flagged by automated filters. Paradoxically, the same scale and diversity that make YouTube the primary destination for watching, mashing, and spreading video have led the site to prioritize professional and commercial interests, leaving it a poor archive for remixes (Juhasz 2011).

Hitler, as "Downfall producer" orders a DMCA takedown from Brad Templeton on Vimeo.

Video 4. "Hitler, as 'Downfall' producer, orders a DMCA takedown" by Brad Templeton (2009) (http://ideas.4brad.com/hitler-tries-dmca-takedown).

[2.8] Fan vidders, as a relatively cohesive and organized community, adopted the site Imeem en masse in 2007 for video hosting because it had attractive policies and social features (http://fanlore.org/wiki/Imeem). However, in 2009, the company announced a sudden decision to remove all user-generated content, stranding vidders with no centralized home. Today, streaming vids are scattered across several imperfect platforms (including Blip.tv, Vimeo, Viddler, and Vidders.net [built on Ning]), and the group relies on external posts at personal Web sites, blogs/journals, or the text-based Archive of Our Own (a project of the Organization for Transformative Works [OTW]) for archival functions. This is only one example of the demand for advocacy to preserve and protect remix subcultures and their creative works. Initiatives that support the rights of remixers like fans include the Electronic Frontier Foundation's "No Downtime for Free Speech" campaign (http://eff.org/issues/ip-and-free-speech), the Center for Social Media's fair use resources (http://centerforsocialmedia.org/fair-use), and the Participatory Culture Foundation, which develops free and open video technologies (http://pculture.org). OTW, the sponsor of this journal, has collaborated with the Electronic Frontier Foundation (http://www.eff.org) on successfully petitioning the US Copyright Office for a DMCA exemption for noncommercial remix (http://transformativeworks.org/projects/legal). This special issue aims to extend alliances across the practices and perspectives of distinct remix communities because these connections are vital to safeguarding remix as a widely accessible creative practice.

3. Multimedia

[3.1] Transformative Works and Cultures and the OTW have particular ties to the largely female and feminist traditions of media fandom, including fan vidding. The journal and the organization have also been at the forefront of efforts to build affiliations among contiguous or compatible forms of fan production, activism, and scholarship. Vidding, which customarily involves editing clips from TV or movies to the soundtrack of a song in order to "comment on or analyze a set of preexisting visuals, to stage a reading, or occasionally to use the footage to tell new stories" (Coppa 2008, ¶1.1), has been practiced in fan communities since the 1970s. In the more recent era of Internet video, vidders have found points of aesthetic and subcultural intersection with other strands of fandom (e.g., anime music video), with memes and other appropriations of mass media (e.g., spoof movie trailers), and with the critical commitment of political remix. Our topic for this special issue on Fan/Remix Video deliberately highlights the distinctiveness and hybridization of fan vidding and other remix genres. Styling it with a slash alludes to the convention in media fandom of marking erotic or romantic couples in this fashion, as in the paradigmatic Kirk/Spock pairing. Thus, our title suggests that fan video and remix video are engaged in an ongoing relationship, a networked narrative of which this special issue may be one component. We would thus like to present, as part of our introduction, a vid that articulates this episode in the tale we are collectively telling. Video sources are drawn from the citations in this issue, the oeuvre of authors in this issue, and from 24/7 DIY screenings in 2008.

Video 5. "Oh Internet (A Vidding/Remix Romance)," by Julie Levin Russo (2012) (see Appendix B). Video audio source, "'Oh, Internet'—A Love Song" by Harto (Hannah Hart) and Creator&Distractor (2012) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mafimBTMTmY); video effects source based on "How to Datamosh," by datamosher (Bob Weisz) (2010) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYf3EWMuHH0).

4. Contents of this special issue

[4.1] This introduction has integrated various scholarly and multimedia sources through the modalities of remix, culminating in the original video component in video 5 above. As such, it can exist only online, where the capacities of the Web (as deployed by the developers of the open-source software the journal uses, OJS [http://pkp.sfu.ca/node/473], and TWC's layout team) support hyperlinks and media embedding. To further mobilize both the topic and the form of this special issue, we feature a substantial section of curated video exhibits documenting remix practices including queer video remix, anime music video, and political remix video. Both Ian Roberts's "Genesis of the Digital Anime Music Video Scene" and Jonathan McIntosh's "A History of Subversive Remix Video" focus particularly on establishing the predigital, pre-YouTube history of remix. McIntosh's extensive collection starts in 1941, with Charles A. Ridley's parody of Hitler and the Nazis, and ends in 2005, the year of YouTube's creation, with a remix reflective of our own political climate: Jackie Sollum's "Planet of the Arabs." Similarly, Ian Roberts chronicles the evolution of AMVs from 1990 to 2003, focusing on the development of both technological practices and aesthetic standards within emerging anime music video communities. In her exhibition, "Queer Video Remix and LGBTQ Online Communities," Elisa Kreisinger considers remix itself as a queer act that "challenges, questions, or provokes," and her collection of videos encourages the viewer to "gaze through a queer lens, identify with queer(ed) characters, and be sympathetic to their struggles." Like these three online exhibits, our fourth multimedia piece, Alexandra Juhasz's "Fred Rant," takes advantage of the new potentialities of digital scholarship even as it demonstrates a critical approach to more utopian models of (aca)fandom and participatory culture. Juhasz argues that the cruelty and shallowness of many of the amateur videos responding to famed vlogger Fred suggests that not all participation is empowering and not all speech is edifying. Her video essay, constructed in the same immersive, multimodal online platform as her video book, Learning from YouTube, takes us through the juvenile work of Fred's fans and then asks us to ponder: "But did they learn anything, grow, become artists or citizens?"

[4.2] Scaffolding the debates that play out across these multimedia pieces, the essays in the Theory section step back from particular works to articulate broader implications of read-write video culture in thought-provoking ways. In "Mashup as Temporal Amalgam," Paul Booth considers how remixes frequently mash together two time frames; moreover, often an older work is juxtaposed with a newer one, and reinterpreted or reinvigorated by the connection. Booth therefore argues that remixing alters the value of various cultural products by altering their place and time in the social world; one may need to know yesterday's movie to understand today's remix. Tisha Turk and Joshua Johnson claim that scholars of remix typically paint vidders as articulate consumers rather than as producers in their own right—that is, as artists who have their own enthusiastic audiences and are working within a collective art world of shared meanings and collaboratively developed tastes. Influenced by composition studies, "Toward an Ecology of Vidding" recharacterizes the vidding community as a vast and complex ecosystem of creative and interpretive activity in which a vid is a statement as well as a response. Like Turk and Johnson, Virginia Kuhn insists that remix is an active discursive act rather than a responsive or secondary work. In "The Rhetoric of Remix," Kuhn argues against definitions of remix that implicitly valorize an original author or text and discusses several fan vids and remixes that would benefit from a more robust understanding of remix as speech. The Theory section closes with a provocative essay from Kim Middleton, whose essay remixes two contemporary academic topics: the crisis of the humanities and the rise of the remix. Like any good mashup, Middleton's juxtaposition gets us to see both sides differently; in "Remix Video and the Crisis of the Humanities," she suggests that the skills and values of the humanities—close reading, critical thinking, the interrogation of authorial and authoritative voices, and the ability to produce new interpretations—are amply manifested in remix culture.

[4.3] The Praxis essays in this issue offer in-depth discussions of videos that demonstrate remix's potential as a sophisticated critical and artistic response. In "Vidding and the Perversity of Critical Pleasure: Sex, Violence, and Voyeurism in 'Closer' and 'On the Prowl," Sarah Fiona Winters argues that these metacritical fan vids examine the pleasures of media fandom and its practices while reinscribing those same pleasures for the spectator, constructing complex texts that seduce even as they question and subvert expectations. Agnese Vellar analyzes Lady Gaga's mastery of Web 2.0 and the unparalleled spreadability of her image and brand in "Spreading the Cult Body on YouTube: A Case Study of "Telephone" Derivative Videos." By positioning herself as both a user and a producer of audiovisual media and social media, Gaga legitimizes and participates in the fertile creative fan culture that surrounds her. Last, Kathleen Williams explores "Fake and Fan Film Trailers as Incarnations of Audience Anticipation and Desire," showing that these trailers are akin to architectural desire lines, creating trace versions of stories that may never exist or express anticipation of particular film events or interpretations.

[4.4] Rounding out this Fan/Remix Video special issue are several short case studies, interviews, and reviews. In the Symposium section, Martin Leduc surveys the career of political remixer Jonathan McIntosh; Zephra Doerr looks at anime abridged series, a form of fan parody and critique; and Forest Phillips explores Star Wars fan edits and recuts. We also feature vidder counteragent interviewing fellow vidder Bradcpu and artists Desiree D'Alessandro and Diran Lyons together discussing the ways remix culture has influenced their work. Brett Boessen presents a video interview with fair use advocates Eric Faden, maker of "A Fair(y) Use Tale," and Nina Paley, creator of Sita Sings the Blues, as well as a number of fair use animations for Question Copyright (http://questioncopyright.org). Finally, Lindsay Giggey reviews Jennifer Gillan's 2010 book Television and New Media: Must-Click TV.

[4.5] Transformative Works and Cultures and the OTW have offered us the ideal forum to present intellectual and curatorial work on Fan/Remix Video: a multimedia, open-access, online journal that is available to remix scholars, artists, and fans alike. We hope the issue leaves you as excited as we are about this remarkable dossier, and above all that it sparks the question: "What do I want to remix?"

5. Acknowledgments

[5.1] The following people worked on TWC No. 9 in an editorial capacity: Francesca Coppa and Julie Levin Russo (guest editors); Kristina Busse and Karen Hellekson (editors); Anne Kustritz, Patricia Nelson, and Suzanne Scott (Symposium); and Louisa Stein (Review).

[5.2] The following people worked on TWC No. 9 in a production capacity: Rrain Prior (production editor); Beth Friedman, Shoshanna Green, and Mara Greengrass (copyeditors); Wendy Carr and Kristen Murphy (layout); and Carmen Montopoli and Vickie West (proofreaders).

[5.3] TWC thanks all its board members, whose names appear on TWC's masthead, as well as the additional peer reviewers who provided service for TWC No. 9: Alex Jenkins, Joshua McVeigh, Kim Middleton, Edy Moulton, Vicente Rodriguez Ortega, Tisha Turk, and Sarah Winters.

6. Appendix A: Special issue trailers

The following trailers were made by Kevin Tomasura, a film studies major and Francesca Coppa's research assistant at Muhlenberg College.

Video 6. "Nirgaga," trailer for TWC's Fan/Remix Video issue by Kevin Tomasura (2012).

Video 7. "Timeshifting," trailer for TWC's Fan/Remix Video issue by Kevin Tomasura (2012).

Video 8. "Tracking Error," trailer for TWC's Fan/Remix Video issue by Kevin Tomasura (2012).

7. Appendix B: "Oh Internet" video sources

Title Creator Type Link
Failed Experiments in Video Editing (2001) Big Big Truck Productions AMV (meta) http://animemusicvideos.org/members/members_videoinfo.php?v=2665
CITIHALL* (2010) BradCPU Vid (Futurama) http://youtube.com/watch?v=NQnA8Qs1ACw
Vidder Profile: absolutedestiny (2009) BradCPU Remix (interview) http://vid-commentary.livejournal.com/3658.html
Hard Sun (2009) BradCPU and Laura Shapiro Vid (meta) https://archiveofourown.org/works/17318105
Top Gun Recut (2006) chuck13171 Remix (trailer) http://youtube.com/watch?v=ekXxi9IKZSA
A Hard Day's Night of the Living Dead (2006) Clates Remix (trailer) https://criticalcommons.org/view?m=QmYKq7n50
Coin Operated Boy (2011) counteragent Vid (meta) http://counteragent.livejournal.com/107870.html
Destiny Calling (2008) counteragent Vid (meta) http://counteragent.livejournal.com/14447.html
She Blinded Me With Science (2009) counteragent Vid (charmax tribute) http://counteragent.livejournal.com/48951.html
Still Alive (2008) counteragent Vid (meta) http://counteragent.livejournal.com/42225.html
Live Action Code Monkey (2007) Derrick Stolee Fan film (meme) http://youtube.com/watch?v=aqTaqVi9J8k
Open Video Conference 2010 (Step Brothers Remix) (2010) Desiree D'Alessandro Remix (political) http://youtube.com/watch?v=uFRNOEHm2Y8
Chevron Lie Detector (2012) Diran Lyons Remix (political) http://youtube.com/watch?v=mk_1ez8zc2Q
Harry Potter vs Darth Vader (Project 12, 7/12) (2011) Diran Lyons Remix (political) http://youtube.com/watch?v=AcI5vZEGBSI
Matriarchs of Death (Project 12, 4/12) (2011) Diran Lyons Remix (political) http://youtube.com/watch?v=1tO1_OkhK4A
Telephone vs Enter Sandman (2010) DJs from Mars Music mashup http://youtube.com/watch?v=xLo-u17V-lY
Right Now Someone Is Reading This Title (2001) Doki Doki Productions AMV (meme) http://animemusicvideos.org/members/members_videoinfo.php?v=3684
Captivity (2008) Elisa Kreisinger Remix (political) http://youtube.com/watch?v=F7EfhumL4yo
Sex and the Remix (2009) Elisa Kreisinger Remix (political) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g4-IjZJajTI
A Fair(y) Use Tale (2007) Eric Faden Remix (political) http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/documentary-film-program/film/a-fair-y-use-tale
Barbie and the Diamond Castle Recut (2010) gaberine Remix (political) https://criticalcommons.org/view?m=wCdxFfXvf
Buffy vs Edward: Twilight Remixed (2009) Jonathan McIntosh Remix (political) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZwM3GvaTRM
Right Wing Radio Duck (2010) Jonathan McIntosh Remix (political) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HfuwNU0jsk0
Too Many Dicks on The Daily Show (2011) Jonathan McIntosh Remix (political) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uzU1_CsOnJA
Wouldn't It Be Nice (2002) Laura Shapiro Vid (multi) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7Oe7BzoqHc
I Put You There (2006) Laura Shapiro and Lithiumdoll Vid (meta) https://dotsub.com/view/343268fe-74c9-4421-a223-90c7b0e7d027
The Grey Video (2004) Laurent Fauchere and Antoine Tinguely Music mashup http://youtube.com/watch?v=3zJqihkLcGc
Us (2007) lim Vid (meta) http://youtube.com/watch?v=_yxHKgQyGx0
Vogue (2008) Luminosity Vid (300) http://youtube.com/watch?v=2_NrUD1iqME
Virgin O'Riley (2010) Mark Vidler Music mashup http://youtube.com/watch?v=-EiDmsaDT9Q
WoW Code Monkey (2006) Mike Booth Machinima (meme) http://youtube.com/watch?v=v4Wy7gRGgeA
The Shining Recut (2006) Neochosen Remix (trailer) http://youtube.com/watch?v=KmkVWuP_sO0
Trailer for Toy Story 3: Inception (2010) ScreenRant Remix (trailer) http://youtube.com/watch?v=jHJwgA54Gqk
Walking on the Ground (2005) Seah and Margie Vid (meta) http://flummery.org
Code Monkey AMV (2007) Studio Hybrid AMV (meme) http://youtube.com/watch?v=5W_wd9Qf0IE
Closer (2003) T. Jonesy and Killa Vid (K/S) http://youtube.com/watch?v=3uxTpyCdriY
The Glass (2008) thingswithwings Vid (multi) http://thingswithwings.dreamwidth.org/30715.html
Sims2 Code Monkey (2007) thumbmaster021 Machinima (meme) http://youtube.com/watch?v=qIJ1bWqXn3U
Ten Things I Hate about the Commandments (2006) Vayabobo Remix (trailer) http://youtube.com/watch?v=u1kqqMXWEFs

8. Appendix C: Online resources

Resource URL
Fair Use Remix Institute http://remixinstitute.net
[re]mix:studies.org http://remixstudies.org
Political Remix Video blog http://www.politicalremixvideo.com
Total Recut (video remix gallery and community) http://www.totalrecut.com
hitRECord (remix and collaboration-based media production) http://hitrecord.org
Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Online Video http://centerforsocialmedia.org/fair-use/related-materials/codes/code-best-practices-fair-use-online-video
EFF's "Test Suite" of Fair Use Video Examples http://www.eff.org/pages/UGC-test-suite
MIT Tech TV appropriation series http://techtv.mit.edu/tags/1507-appropriation/videos
In Media Res Vidding Theme Week http://mediacommons.futureofthebook.org/imr/theme-week/2008/05/fannish-vidders-themed-week-january-28-february-1-2008
OTW's Fan Video and Multimedia initiative http://transformativeworks.org/projects/multimedia
OTW's comprehensive fan video bibliography http://transformativeworks.org/projects/fan-video-bibliographies

9. Appendix D: Further reading

Beebe, Roger, and Jason Middleton, eds. 2007. Medium Cool: Music Videos from Soundies to Cellphones. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Boon, Marcus. 2010. In Praise of Copying. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Burgess, Jean, and Joshua Green. 2009. YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture. New York: Polity.

Busse, Kristina, ed. 2009. "In Focus: Fandom and Feminism." Cinema Journal 48 (4): 104–36. http://www.cmstudies.org/?InFocus_48_4.

Coppa, Francesca, Rebecca Tushnet, Kristina Busse, and Alexis Lothian. 2011. "In Practice: Vidding." Camera Obscura 26 (2): 123–46.

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